Cordyceps militaris – Raupenpilz
Bei Cordyceps handelt es sich um eines der berühmtesten Heilmittel der chinesischen Medizin. Er ist ein Jungbrunnen, der umfassend Schwäche und Alterserscheinungen mindert, er baut das Qi der Funktionskreise von Niere und Milz auf und beseitigt Stauungen und Ablagerungen, die sich hieraus ergeben.
Cordyceps regt die Tätigkeit der Mitochondrien an, sodaß vermehrt Energie gebildet wird, was Ausdauer und körperliche, seelische und geistige Leistungsfähigkeit erhöht.
Fehlfunktionen und Schwäche des Immunsystems werden reguliert, Autoimmunkrankheiten, Allergien und chronische Entzündungen geheilt.
Das Vegetativum, also die unbewußt regulierten Körperfunktionen, wird stabilisiert, die Widerstandfähigkeit gegen das eigene System beeinträchtigende äußere und innere Einflüsse wird erhöht ebenso wie die allgemeine Regenerationskraft.
Cordyceps hilft bei Depressionen, steigert den Antrieb, die Entscheidungsfreude, Gedächtnis und Verstand.
Sekundäre Folge dieser Regenerierung der Kräfte ist die Wirkung bei Krebs, Arteriosklerose, KHK, metabolischem Syndrom, Diabetes, Hochdruck und Adipositas, also dem sogenannten Zivilisationssyndrom, dem Hauptkiller unserer Zeit.
The swimming times to exhaustion of mice were very significantly (p < 0.01) longer in low-, middle- and high-dose groups (respectively 1.87-, 1.94- and 1.88-times), and significantly (p < 0.05) longer in the n-butanol fraction group (1.52-times), hot water extract group (1.88- times) and refined polysaccharide group (2.66-times) than in blank control;
- Cordyceps sinensis promotes exercise endurance capacity of rats by activating skeletal muscle metabolic regulators
CS supplementation with or without exercise improves exercise endurance capacity by activating the skeletal muscle metabolic regulators and a coordinated antioxidant response. Consequently, CS can be used as a potent natural exercise mimetic.
We found that Cordyceps preparation, as an adjuvant therapy to conventional medicine, showed potential promise to decrease serum creatinine, increase creatine clearance, reduce proteinuria and alleviate CKD-associated complications, such as increased haemoglobin and serum albumin.
Concurrently, CS-P supplementation potently suppressed the LPS-induced rise of lipid peroxidation and markedly enhanced the antioxidant defense system by restoring the levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in kidney. The present results suggested that CS-P pre-treatment could protect against LPS-triggered inflammatory responses and renal injury in rats.
- Krankheiten des Immunsystems
- Anti-inflammatory effects of cordycepin in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages through Toll-like receptor 4-mediated suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF-κB signaling pathways.
Taken together, the results suggest that the inhibitory effects of cordycepin on LPS-stimulated inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages are associated with suppression of mitogen-activating protein kinases and activation of NF-κB by inhibition of the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway.
- Anti-inflammatory effect of a novel food Cordyceps guangdongensis on experimental rats with chronic bronchitis induced by tobacco smoking.
This study indicates that the hot-water extract from C. guangdongensis has a significant anti-inflammatory effect on chronic bronchitis.
The results show that the administration of CMP was able to overcome the CY-induced immunosuppression, significantly increased the spleen and thymus indices, and enhanced the spleen lymphocyte activity and macrophage function. CMP can also improve the antioxidation activity in immunosuppressed mice, significantly increase the superoxidase dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase levels and the total antioxidant capacity, and decrease the malondialdehyde levels in vivo.
Due to its inhibitory effect on the immune system, cordyceps can be used for treatment of autoimmune diseases and for immunosuppression after organ transplant. Early oral administration of C. sinensis (2.4 mg/g/day) induced the redistribution of HPBMC with reduced percentages of CD4+ T cells (P < .05), and attenuated the disease severity of lupus in (NZB/NZW) F1 mice with increased survival, decreased proteinuria, and reduced titers of anti-double-stranded DNA antibody (Chen et al. 2009).
The levels of activated Lyn, Syk, PLCγ1 and LAT proteins were reduced in CGNMII treated RBL-2H3 cells. CGNMII also inhibited the activation of AKT and ERK1/2 proteins. These results suggest that CGNMII might be used as a therapeutic agent for allergic diseases.
CBBF inhibited atopic dermatitis symptoms and signs in the DNFB-treated NC/Nga mice. The suppressive activity of topically applied CBBF may be due to the dose-dependent blockade of a series of immunopathological events, including the release of histamine, the production of IgE, and the secretion of IL-4 and IFN-γ
ACM greatly improves the symptoms of asthma airway remodeling by inhibiting the expression of TGF-beta1 and upregulating the amount of Smad7.
Together, our results suggest that cordycepin possesses a synergistic cytotoxic effect with Cordyceps militaris-mediated apoptosis in human leukemia cells and therefore explaining a better anti-proliferating activity of CM(FB) over CM(MY).
We demonstrated that Cordyceps militaris extract remarkably suppressed tumor growth via induction of apoptotic cell death in culture that links to the abrogation of VEGF production in melanoma cells. This was followed by mitigation of Akt1 and GSK-3β activation, while p38α phosphorylation levels were increased. Extract treatment in mouse model xenografted with human melanoma cells resulted in a dramatic antitumor effect with down-regulation of VEGF expression.
These findings indicate that cordycepol C induces caspase-independent apoptosis in HepG2 cells through a p53-independent and Bax-mediated mitochondrial pathway, leading to the nuclear translocation of AIF and Endo G. Our study provides the molecular mechanism by which cordycepol C induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells and indicates the potential use of cordycepol C as an antitumor agent.
In conclusion, COR remarkably improved depression-like behavior in CUMS mice and its antidepressant activity is mediated, at least in part, by the upregulating BDNF and downregulating 5-HT2AR levels and inflammation in hippocampus.
- Protective Effects on Mitochondria and Anti-Aging Activity of Polysaccharides from Cultivated Fruiting Bodies of Cordyceps militaris
These results indicate that CMP protects mitochondria by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibiting mitochondrial swelling, and increasing the activities of antioxidases. Therefore, CMP may have pharmaceutical values for mitochondrial protection and anti-aging.
- Intervention in genotoxic stress-induced senescence by cordycepin through activation of eIF2α and suppression of Sp1
The antisenescence effect of cordycepin was mediated by activation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) because (1) cordycepin induced phosphorylation of eIF2α, (2) selective activation of eIF2α mimicked the suppressive effect of cordycepin on senescence, and (3) functional knockdown of eIF2α reversed the effect of cordycepin.
The results showed that CSE improved the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase and lowered the level of lipid peroxidation and monoamine oxidase activity in the aged mice. The study demonstrated that CSE can improve the brain function and antioxidative enzyme activity in mice with d-galactose-induced senescence and promote sexual function in castrated rats. All of these findings suggest that CSE has an antiaging effect.
- Metabolisches Syndrom
- Studies on the antidiabetic activities of Cordyceps militaris extract in diet-streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats.
Collectively, Cordyceps militaris extract, a safe pharmaceutical agent, presents excellent antidiabetic and antinephropathic activities and thus has great potential as a new source for diabetes treatment.
Cordyceps has hypoglycemic activity in normal animals. The oral administration of a cordyceps carbohydrate extract “Cs-4” at 2 g/kg/day for 25 days increased insulin sensitivity, and the extract had potential beneficial effects by maintaining whole-body glucose disposal with a less-pronounced increase in insulin secretion after a carbohydrate challenge in rats
- Effects of Cordyceps Sinensis and Tipterygium wilfordii Polyglycosidium on the podocytes in rats with diabetic nephropathy
CS and TWP could alleviate the DN proteinuria, protect and repair podocytes of DN rats. Its mechanisms might be correlated with up-regulating the expressions of nephrin and podocin. The combined use of CS and TWP could increase the efficacy and attenuate adverse reactions of TWP.
- Effect of Cordyceps militaris extract and active constituents on metabolic parameters of obesity induced by high-fat diet in C58BL/6J mice
The administration of Cordyceps militaris extract (CE) at the dose of 100mg/kg and 300 mg/kg reduced body weight gain and food efficiency ratio induced by HFD. The amount of epididymal fat and size of adipocytes were also decreased by CE treatment. In addition, liver weight and fat deposition in liver were dramatically reduced in CE-treated group. The treatment of CE also showed beneficial effects on plasma parameters related to lipid profiles.
In our present study, Cordyceps militaris showed significant inhibitory activity on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes as assessed by measuring fat accumulation using Oil Red O staining.
- Lipid-lowering effect of cordycepin (3′-deoxyadenosine) from Cordyceps militaris on hyperlipidemic hamsters and rats
The results suggested that levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) increased markedly in the two animal models by feeding high-fat diet. Meanwhile, cordycepin reduced levels of serum TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C as well as LDL-C/HDL-C (high density lipoprotein cholesterol) and TC/HDL-C ratios.
- Cordycepin prevents hyperlipidemia in hamsters fed a high-fat diet via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase
These results indicate that cordycepin prevents hyperlipidemia via activation of AMPK. Experiments on abnormal metabolic mice indicated that cordycepin can also improve insulin sensitivity effectively.
Cordycepin reduced sleep-wake cycles and increased nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Interestingly, cordycepin increased θ (theta) waves power density during NREM sleep. In addition, the protein levels of AR subtypes (A1, A2A, and A2B) were increased after the administration of cordycepin, especially in the rat hypothalamus which plays an important role in sleep regulation. Therefore, we suggest that cordycepin increases theta waves power density during NREM sleep via nonspecific AR in rats. In addition, this experiment can provide basic evidence that cordycepin may be helpful for sleep-disturbed subjects.
Taken together, our results suggest that Cordyceps militaris extract could ameliorate experimental memory impairment in mice with D-Gal-induced aging through its potent antioxidant activities.
- Männlicher Sexualhormonmangel
- Effect of long-term administration of cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris on testicular function in middle-aged rats.
All cordycepin-treated groups showed well-arranged spermatogonia, densely packed cellular material, and increased numbers of mature spermatozoa in the seminiferous lumen compared to the middle-aged control group. These results indicate that long-term administration of cordycepin can counteract the decline of testicular function in middle-aged rats.
Evidence shows that C. sinensis and C. militaris can improve reproductive activity and restore impaired reproductive function (Table 5.2). The administration of C. sinensis enhanced libido and sexual activity, and restored impaired reproductive function in both sexes in human
- Effect of Cordyceps militaris supplementation on sperm production, sperm motility and hormones in Sprague-Dawley rats
Epididymal sperm count was enhanced significantly from the control, at the 5th week and peaked at the 6th week in both groups supplemented with CM (each time point, n = 6; p < 0.05) and maintained for 2 weeks after stopping the treatment. Increased serum testosterone and estradiol-17 (E2) concentrations were found in rats with the CM supplementation (p < 0.05), but not other hormones such as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) or prolactin. Importantly, percentages of motile sperm cells were also enhanced significantly (p < 0.05) paralleled the serum testosterone pattern from the supplement groups as compared to the control group.
The beneficial effects of CSIF on improvement of osteoporosis in rats were attributable mainly to decrease ALP activity, TRAP activity, CTX level and IFN-γ level. At the same time, CSIF also increase the OC and estradiol level in ovariectomized osteopenic rats. The histological examination clearly showed that dietary CSIF can prevent bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency.
Our results showed that CMCS could significantly alleviate levels of serum liver functions, attenuate hepatic inflammation, decrease collagen deposition, and relieve levels of α-SMA in liver, respectively.
Cordyceps sinensis is able to reduce the expression of TGF-β₁ mRNA and increase the expression of Smad7 mRNA in lung tissues of rabbits with silicotic pulmonary fibrosis, and thus postpone the progression of fibrosis.
We also found that Cordyceps extract had an anti-influenza effect that was associated with stable body weight and reduced mortality. The anti-viral effect of Cordyceps extract on influenza infection was mediated presumably by increased IL-12 expression and greater number of NK cells.
These results indicate that C. militaris can exert protective effects against development of NAFLD, partly by reducing inflammatory cytokines and improving hepatic antioxidant status in ob/ob mice.
Currently, as a medicinal resource, C. sinensis has aroused attention from the world. In the past 20 years, many studies found that Cordyceps fungi show the anti-thrombotic effect, as well as a good potential for becoming a patent medicine.
We show for the first time the anti-inflammatory activity of cordycepin in human OA chondrocytes. Thus, with this unique profile of actions, cordycepin may prove to be a potentially attractive and new therapeutic/preventive agent for OA.
Cardioprotection was demonstrated by reduced post-ischemic diastolic dysfunction and improved recovery of pressure development and coronary flow. Treatment with CS largely abrogates oxidative stress and damage in glucose- or pyruvate-perfused hearts.
Portal vein ligation produced significant increments in liver enzymes, NO, creatinine and portal pressure concomitant with significant decrements in glutathione content and superoxide dismutase activity. Treatment with captopril, PTX, and C. sinensis resulted in a significant reduction in liver enzymes, NO, creatinine and portal pressure and observable increase in antioxidant enzymes.
The results indicate that C. sinensis regulates intestinal bacteria by improving GALT or systemic immunity or both. The oral administration of cultured mycelia of C. sinensis hot water extract at 1 g/kg/day for 7 days stimulated the activation of peritoneal macrophages and Peyer’s patch cells with increase in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IL-6 levels in ICR mice (Koh et al. 2002). Macrophages in GALT function as antibacterial guards, by phagocytosing and killing any microbes that penetrate the lamina propria
Cordycepin is a potent inhibitor of IL-1beta-induced chemokine production and MMP expression and strongly blocks the p38/JNK/AP-1 signalling pathway in RASFs.
Die 5-Elementeanalyse bildet die Energiedynamik von Cordyceps wie folgt ab:
Schwarz : Studien
Rot: Studien Hauptwirkung
Zum Verständnis der Abkürzungen des Schaubildes siehe:
Struktur – und Wandlungsmodell der chinesischen Medizin