Trigonella foenum-graecum, Semen – HU LU BA
Das Wesen der Wirkung von Bockshornsamen ist Mehrung, Anregung des Qis. Dem entspricht auf der physiologischen Ebene eine Anregung der Bildung des Wachstumshormons und auf der Ebene des Erlebens eine vermehrte Ausdauer, des Antriebs und eine Anregung der Libido.
Trigonella bewirkt eine allgemeine Verjüngung und „Entschleimung“ im traditionell chinesischen Sinn eine Minderung von kalter Feuchte, welche zu degenerativen Veränderungen führt.
Diese Wirkung bedeutet therapeutischen Nutzen in erster Linie beim Metabolischen Syndrom, also bei Diabetes Typ2, Adipositas, Hypertonie und Hypercholesterinämie. Damit verbunden ist eine Wirkung auf Arteriosklerose, Katarakt und degenerativen neurologischen Erkrankungen wie Parkinson und Demenz.
Trigonella stimuliert und schützt Leber und Gewebe, baut Muskeln auf und Fett ab, regt die Milchbildung und Verdauungstätigkeit an. Es senkt die Wahrscheinlichkeit einer Krebserkrankung und erhöht die Fähigkeit des Körpers Krebszellen abzutöten. Dies gilt insbesondere für Brust- Haut- und Darmkrebs.
Durch die Aktivierung der Zellfunktionalität und den damit verbundenen Abbau von toxischen Ablagerungen wirkt Trigonella antientzündlich und antiallergisch. Das wirkt sich insbesondere bei rheumatischer Arthritis und bei Arthrose aus.
Allgemein zeigt sich der geschilderte Wirkmechanismus in erster Linie bei den schnell sich teilenden und den empfindlichen Zellen : Nerven, Haut und Schleimhäute, Drüsensystem. Es sind die Zellverbände, die zuerst von Degeneration und Alterung bedroht sind.
Das ist der Grund, warum Trigonella schon bei den alten Ägyptern als Mittel galt, welches „aus einem alten einen jungen Mann“ machen kann.
- Metabolisches Syndrom
In conclusion, it may be postulated that fenugreek has great potential in preventing diabetes-induced retinal degeneration in humans after regular consumption in the specified dosage.
Results suggest that composite extract of above plant parts has more potent antidiabetic efficacy than the individual extract.
Fenugreek was found to significantly reduce the high levels of glucose, urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, and IL-6 in serum compared with the diabetic untreated group.These findings suggest a therapeutic potential of fenugreek against diabetic nephropathy, explain its antioxidative/anti-inflammatory properties and provide a direction for future research.
Results were comparable with orlistat, a standard anti-obesity drug, and provide clear evidence that the AqE-TFG treatment offered significant protection against MSG-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress, and may play an important role in amelioration of the free radical generated consequences like dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis.
Moreover administration of fenugreek essential oil to surviving diabetic rats improved starch and glucose oral tolerance additively. Furthermore, the Om3/terp also decreased significantly the glucose, triglyceride (TG) and total-cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) rates in the plasma and liver of diabetic rats and increased the HDL-Cholesterol (HDL-Ch) level, which helped maintain the homeostasis of blood lipid.
Interestingly, the formulation Om3/terp modulated key enzyme related to hypertension such as ACE by 37% in plasma and kidney
Daily fat consumption, expressed as the ratio fat reported energy intake/total energy expenditure (fat-REI/TEE), was significantly decreased in our overweight subjects administered the fenugreek seed extract relative to those receiving the placebo
Treating fat supplement fed C57BL6/J mice with TEFS for 15 days resulted in decrease of serum TG, LDL-cholesterol (LDLc), and body weight in a dose- and time-dependent manner. At molecular level, TEFS inhibited accumulation of fat in differentiating and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells via decreased expression of adipogenic factors such as peroxisome proliferators.
It was found that fenugreek seed extract reduced the body weight gain induced by a high-fat diet in obese mice. The extract decreased plasma triglyceride gain induced by oil administration. The major component of the extract, 4-hydroxyisoleucine, also decreased plasma triglyceride gain. Consequently, fenugreek seed extract is expected to prevent the obesity induced by a high-fat diet.
Mucilage accelerated the regression of atheromatous lesions in the aorta as evidenced by significantly low sudanophilic staining. The lipid lowering and antiatherogenic effects of mucilage from fenugreek which is used as a food flavoring spice highlights the importance of dietary intervention in the regression of atherosclerosis.
- Magen- und Duodenalulcus
Under cysteamine model ulceration in duodenal mucus increase galactose (2.7 times), NANA (2.4 times), fucose (1.8-fold) but significant decrease in the amount of hexosamines 3 times compared to the control occurred. It was proved the protective effect of fenugreek extract to the wall surface mucus of the stomach and duodenum mucosa under conditions modeling ulceration in rats
The methanolic extract exhibited both antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects at a dose of 100mg/kg. Among the tested fractions, alkaline chloroform fraction (AKC), which was alkaloid positive in screening tests, showed the most anti-nociceptive effect in a dose-dependent manner. It can be concluded that the alkaloid and flavonoid content of fenugreek seeds can be responsible for antinociception and anti-inflammatory effects of the plant respectively.
In summary, these data demonstrate that at least 90% of FME induced apoptosis in breast cell is mediated by Fas receptor-independently of either FADD, Caspase 8 or 3, as well as p53 interdependently.
Diosgenin, a natural steroidal saponin, has been reported to be found predominantly in fenugreek and has diverse biological properties. Thus, it can be concluded that diosgenin exhibits anticarcinogenic activity via reducing peroxidation reaction and marker enzymes through enhancing the intrinsic antioxidant defense system
FCE effectively killed MCF-7 cells through induction of apoptosis,confirmed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and RT-PCR assays. When cells were exposed to 50 μg/mL FCE for 24 hours, 23.2% apoptotic cells resulted, while a 48-hour exposure to 50 μg/mL caused 73.8% apoptosis.
Fenugreek powder was shown to inhibit (25-40 %) growth of certain tumors, decrease (27-63%) level of malone dialdehyde in liver, heart and kidney.
Distinct morphological changes involving appearance of large vacuoles, membrane disintegration and increased expression of LC3 transcripts indicated that fenugreek extract induced autophagy and autophagy-associated death of Jurkat cells
In this study, we demonstrate that extract (FE) from the seeds of the plant Trigonella foenum graecum, commonly called fenugreek, are cytotoxic in vitro to a panel of cancer but not normal cells. Treatment with 10-15 ug/mL of FE for 72 h was growth inhibitory to breast, pancreatic and prostate cancer cell lines
A significant reduction of papillomas in DMBA + TPA + TFGS (400 mg/kg. body wt.) treated group was found to be effective in decreasing the rate of tumor incidence in comparison to control. Furthermore, cumulative number of papillomas, tumor yield and tumor burden were also found to be reduced.
In combination, TQ and DG had synergistic effects, resulting in cell viability as low as 10%. In a mouse xenograft model, a combination of TQ and DG significantly (P<0.05) reduced tumor volume, mass and increased apoptosis. TQ and DG, alone and in combination, inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in squamous cell carcinoma. The combination of TQ and DG is a potential antineoplastic therapy in this common skin cancer.
Results from the in vitro experiments indicated that diosgenin inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in the HT-29 human colon cancer cell line in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, diosgenin induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells at least in part by inhibition of bcl-2 and by induction of caspase-3 protein expression. On the basis of these findings, the fenugreek constituent diosgenin seems to have potential as a novel colon cancer preventive agent.
SFSE-T showed reversal of motor symptoms in an animal model of PD probably through neuroprotective properties.
This study highlighted the hepatotoxicity of AlCl3 through biochemical and histological parameters in one hand and the hepatoprotective role of fenugreek seeds on the other hand
These results indicate that fenugreek extract cures Th2-induced allergic skin inflammation by enhancing Th1 differentiation. These data suggest that fenugreek extracts may prove to be an useful therapeutic agent on allergic inflammatory diseases as traditional use as well as Th2-mediated allergic response.
- Schmerzhafte periphere Neuropathie
IND01 was found to be effective in rat models of painful peripheral neuropathy
- Rheumatoide Arthritis
- foenum graecum 400-mg/kg dose showed more prominent results compared to the 200-mg/kg dose of T. foenum graecum. The results obtained in this study suggest that anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of T. foenum graecum may be the possible reason behind the observed anti-arthritic activity.
Fenugreek mucilage exhibited maximum percentage of edema inhibition at a dose of 75 mg/kg on 21st day of adjuvant arthritis. The effect was higher than that of standard drug indomethacin. Thus the results demonstrated the potential beneficiary effect of fenugreek mucilage on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats.
Fenugreek, onion and their combination reduced the incidence of cholesterol gallstones by 75%, 27% and 76%, respectively, with attendant reduction in total cholesterol content by 38-42%, 50-72% and 61-80% in serum, liver and bile respectively. Consequently, the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio was reduced significantly in serum, liver and bile.
Testofen had an overall positive effect on physiological aspects of libido. In particular, there was a significant increase in the subdomains of sexual arousal and orgasm. It was concluded that Testofen demonstrated a significant positive effect on physiological aspects of libido and may assist to maintain normal healthy testosterone levels.
The newly isolated digoxigenin-3-O-rutin appears to be more potent and safe than digoxin. Its higher efficacy could be due to its structural specificity and might have been mediated through its better free radical scavenging action.
In vivo, none of the eyes was found with nuclear cataract in treated group as opposed to 72.5% in the control group. T. foenum-graecum protects against experimental cataract by virtue of its antioxidant properties
A significant delay in the onset and progression of cataract was observed with 2.5% TF diet; after 30 days none of the treated eyes developed mature cataracts as compared to 100% of control eyes.
Fenugreek saponin I (1) and dioscin (9) caused ca. 12.5- and 17.7-fold stimulation of release, respectively, of rat growth hormone from rat pituitary cells, whereas gitogenin (5) showed moderate activity. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that steroidal saponins stimulate rat growth-hormone release in rat pituitary cells.
The results showed that the amount of calcification in the kidneys and the total calcium amount of the renal tissue in rats treated with Tfg were significantly reduced compared with the untreated group. Consequently, Tfg may be a useful agent in the treatment of patients with calcic urolithiasis.
- Mangelnde Ausdauer
These results suggest that improvement in swimming endurance by the administration of FG is caused by the increase in utilization of fatty acids as an energy
Ein Vergleich des Wirkspektrums von Trigonella, wie er sich durch die Analyse wissenschaftlicher Studien ergibt, und Benskys TCM-Pharmakopoe ergibt grosse Unterschiede:
Trigonella erscheint laut TCM-Quellen allein als Mittel bei feuchter Kälte, also Bronchitis oder Hernien und kältebedingten Wasseransammlungen im Gewebe.
Die Wirkung auf innere Krankheiten wie dem metabolischen Syndrom, Krebs oder Arthritis bleibt fast ganz aussen vor.
Die 5-Elementeanalyse bildet die Energiedynamik von Trigonella wie folgt ab:
Blau bedeutet : TCM-Quellen
Grün bedeutet: TCM-Quellen und Studien
Schwarz : Studien
Rot: Studien Hauptwirkung
Zum Verständnis der Abkürzungen des Schaubildes siehe
Struktur – und Wandlungsmodell der chinesischen Medizin