Es handelt sich um ein Hormon, welches bei Insekten Verpuppung und Häutung reguliert. Die Wirkung auf Säugetiere ist besteht in erster Linie in Muskelaufbau und Ausdauerfähigkeit. Zudem wirkt es antientzündlich, antioxidativ und Stoffwechselsteigernd; es baut Ablagerungen ab.
Natürlich kommt es vor allem in Pfaffia, Quinoa und Spinat vor.
Ecdysterone exhibited a strong hypertrophic effect on the fiber size of rat soleus muscle that was found even stronger compared to the test compounds metandienone (dianabol), estradienedione (trenbolox), and SARM S 1, all administered in the same dose (5 mg/kg body weight, for 21 days). In C2C12 myotubes ecdysterone (1 µM) induced a significant increase of the diameter comparable to dihydrotestosterone (1 µM) and IGF 1 (1.3 nM).
- Estrogen receptor beta is involved in skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by the phytoecdysteroid ecdysterone.
In male rats, Ecdy treatment increased muscle fiber size, serum IGF-1 increased, and corticosteron and 17β-estradiol (E2) decreased. In differentiated C2C12 myoblastoma cells, treatment with Ecdy, dihydrotestosterone, IGF-1 but also E2 results in hypertrophy.
The results of studies of anabolic action of 20-hydroxyecdysone in experiments on laboratory animals and the possible explanation (existing in the modern scientific literature) of the mechanism of this phenomenon are discussed. Scientific publication testifying on the application of phytoecdysteroids to remove chronic fatigue syndrome, reducing nerve and muscle fatigue, improve memory and attention processes are presented.
20E is also found most abundantly in plant species and has anabolic effects in vertebrates, i.e. increasing muscle size without androgen influence. Besides the fiber size, 20E also increased the myonuclear number in the fibers of normal and regenerating muscles, suggesting the activation of satellite cells. According to our results 20E may provide an alternative for substitution of anabolic-androgenic steroids in therapeutic treatments against muscle atrophy.
The Ecd-induced increases in epidermal and dermal thickness are suggestive of functional changes of the skin. The decreased amounts of subcutaneous fat in the E₂- and Ecd-treated animals point to either a fat catabolic or an antianabolic effect. The ovariectomy-induced decrease in subcutaneous musculature was prevented by Ecd but not by E₂. The stimulatory effects of Ecd on epidermal and dermal thickness and the muscle-increasing effects in the skin of OVX rats may indicate functional changes of the skin.
These results indicate that ecdysteroids might be considered as potent chemical agents to prevent or delay both collagenase-related skin damages and oxidative stress.
Under Ecd ovx animals gained less fat but had more muscle mass. Serum TSH, T4 and T3 levels remained unaffected while E2 treatment increases T4 but decreases T3 levels. Ecd at the lowest dose lowered serum LDL and did not result in increased serum triglycerides, an effect seen in the E2 treated rats. At the Ecd highest dose serum HDL was higher than in the controls. In conclusion Ecd has beneficial effects on fat and muscle tissue and may be able to prevent the metabolic syndrome and sarcopenia by a non-estrogenic mechanism.
A series of phytoecodysteroids, including alpha-ecdysone, 2-deoxy-alpha-ecdysone, and 2-deoxyecdysterone isolated from Silene praemixta, integristerone A and ecdysterone isolated from Rhaponticum carthamoides and 22-acetylcyasterone and turkesterone isolated from Ajuga turkestanica, exhibit a pronounced hypoglycemic effect in experiments on intact male rats.
Under Ecd ovx animals gained less fat but had more muscle mass. Serum TSH, T4 and T3 levels remained unaffected while E2 treatment increases T4 but decreases T3 levels. Ecd at the lowest dose lowered serum LDL and did not result in increased serum triglycerides, an effect seen in the E2 treated rats. At the Ecd highest dose serum HDL was higher than in the controls. In conclusion Ecd has beneficial effects on fat and muscle tissue and may be able to prevent the metabolic syndrome and sarcopenia by a non-estrogenic mechanism
These findings suggest the potential use of βEcd in the augmentation of bone mass in growing male and female mice. It may also partially prevent the detrimental effects of gonadectomy on trabecular bone. Our results support the potential use of βEcd or nature products that are rich in βEcd to augment peak bone mass. βEcd may differ from the other anabolic hormone treatments that may have severe side effects such as serious cardiac complications. However, its effects on humans remain to be determined.
- Beneficial effects of beta-Ecdysone on the joint, epiphyseal cartilage tissue and trabecular bone in ovariectomized rats.
Ecd and E(2) induced a significant increase in the thickness of joint cartilage. The whole epiphyseal growth plate and its proliferative and hypertrophic zones were also increased by Ecd whereas E(2) reduced their size. The percentage of trabecular area in the metaphysis of tibia was significantly increased in Ecd and E(2) treated animals. Results provide a plausible explanation for the antiosteoporotic effects of TC. Hence, TC as well as other Ecd producing plants or pure Ecd may be of value in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis which is of increasing importance due to aging and obesity among individuals.
- Arthropod steroid hormone (20-Hydroxyecdysone) suppresses IL-1β– induced catabolic gene expression in cartilage
20-Hydroxyecdysone (Ecd) does have chondroprotective effect and Ecd has protective effects on articular cartilage by inhibiting epas1, MMP-3, MMP-13 and ADAMTS-5. Ecd can inhibit IL-1β- induced cartilage destruction via HIF-2α pathway.
Introduction of phytoecdysteroids (ecdysterone, turkesterone and ñyasterone) to rats subjected to prolonged immobilization stress significantly decreased involution of the thymus and spleen, contributed to normalization of increased mass of adrenal glands, and restored their content of ascorbic acid and cholesterol. In the liver of stressed animals, phytoecdysteroids prevented sharp decrease in the glycogen concentration, showed a clear trend toward normalization of the ratio of lactic and pyruvic acids, maintained homeostasis of macroergic phosphorus compounds, and increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes that inhibit lipid peroxidation. With respect to the stress-protective activity, the studied phytoecdysteroids are in some cases superior to eleutherococcus extract.
Ecd reduced caspase 3 activity. IL-1β-induced inflammation and matrix degration were also prevented by Ecd via down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases MMP 3, MMP 9, and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. Additionally, Ecd inhibited Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB) p65 phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, and phosphorylation in IL-1β-induced rat chondrocytes. These results suggested Ecd exerted anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammation in IL-1β-induced rat chondrocytes, which might be related to NF-κB signal pathway.
Ecdysterone can obviously promote wound healing in rabbits, which may offer a clinical alternative for promoting wound healing.
The most interesting of these is that on degenerative diseases, one of which, up to now not clarified in detail, is the so-called adaptogenic effect (protection of the organism against adverse stress factors) associated with anabolic, gastroprotective, and antioxidant effects. A second group of favorable effects is the possibility of suppression of neurodegenerative processes and protection of the cardiovascular system (metabolic syndrome symptom suppression, antidiabetic activity, and protection of heart and blood vessels).
A standard serving of spinach contains more than 100 mg ecdysteroids
Spinach: .01% of fresh weight = 45 mg b-ecdysterone in 450g spinach
Quinoa: .037% of dry weight = 18.25 mg b-ecdysterone in 50g quinoa
Suma root: .66% of dry weight = 26.4 mg b-ecdysterone in 4g of root powder 3.2 to 9.6 μg per seed
Ecdysteroids have an anabolic effect in humans and animals
These results show that juvenile hormone neither induced nor modified sex pheromone production in the housefly. Ecdysteroids or their agonist, by themselves, induce sex pheromone production in the housefly.
The addition of E to sheep food increases body growth rate and also wool growth
In fact, through a stimulation of protein synthesis (and/or a reduction of protein catabolism), ecdysteroids would increase the lean body mass. In pigs, doses of 0.2–0.4 mg/kg/day resulted in better nitrogen retention and a body weight increase of 112–116% relative to controls, while food consumption was lowered by 11–17%.
Indeed it stimulates muscle growth, provided that protein supply is adequate. Such anabolic effects result in increased physical performance without training (Chermnykh et al., 1988). This was for instance demonstrated using the forced swimming test with rats: animals given ecdysteroids for one week were able to swim for significantly longer times.
Wound-healing effects of ecdysteroids have been described. 20E (applied at 0.1% w/w in liposomes) shortens the duration of skin repair after superficial wounding and 20E (2 × 10−4M) stimulates keratinocyte differentiation in vitro.
Accordingly, ecdysteroids show psoriasis-inhibiting effects.
20E administered orally to rats (5 mg/kg) accelerates the healing process after an experimental bone fracture.
Several phytoecdysteroids can stimulate erythropoiesis in rats.
It was rapidly shown that ecdysteroids were able to stimulate protein synthesis in mouse liver.
It was shown early on that 20E given per os to rats reduces hyperglycaemia induced either by glucagon or by alloxan treatment.
In fact, 20E stimulates the incorporation of glucose into glycogen and protein in mouse liver and more generally it enhances glucose utilization by tissues. The mechanism involved seems to be an increase of tissue sensitivity to insulin and preparations containing phytoecdysteroids have been proposed as oral antidiabetics.
Ecdysteroids display hypocholesterolaemic effects, through a reduction of cholesterol biosynthesis and an increase of its catabolism. 20E (5 mg/kg per os) stimulates the conversion of cholesterol into bile acids in rats, and such an effect is reminiscent of some oxysterols . In connection with these effects, ecdysteroids may also have antiatherosclerotic actions.
20E (10–20 mg/kg/day per os) has antiinflammatory properties similar to cortisone acetate in rats and mice.
Ecdysteroids are not toxic to vertebrates: ecdysteroids have a very low toxicity (LD50 > 6g/kg), they are not hypertensive and, in spite of their anabolic action, they would have neither androgenic nor oestrogenic (or antioestrogenic) effects; they induce no virilisation and they do not induce significant changes in castrated animals.
Die 5-Elementeanalyse bildet die Energiedynamik von Ecdysteroid wie folgt ab:
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|Rot bedeutet:||Studien Hauptwirkung|
Zum Verständnis der Abkürzungen des Schaubildes siehe
Struktur – und Wandlungsmodell der chinesischen Medizin