Dosis: 2-10 g/Tag
- Herpes simples
- Hepatitis C
- Aktinische Keratose
The immunosuppressive activity of these compounds was tested using the lymphocyte transsormationtest. Compounds 4, 6 and 9 showed significant immunosuppressive activity.
- Betulin suppressed interleukin-1β-induced gene expression, secretion and proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinase in cultured articular chondrocytes and production of matrix metalloproteinase in the knee joint of rat.
These results suggest that betulin can regulate the gene expression, secretion, and proteolytic activity of MMP-3, by directly acting on articular chondrocytes.
The chemiluminescence (CL) assay indicated that betulin treated chondrocytes had better free radical scavenging activity than the chondrocytes cultured without betulin. Alcian blue staining revealed that the chondrocytes were functionally active and able to synthesis sGAG. The free radical scavenging activity ensures betulin as protectant of chondrocytes and it further maintains the proliferation and basic activities of chondrocytes.
BE induces cell death more rapidly as compared to BetA, but to achieve similar amounts of cell death a considerably higher concentration of BE is needed. Interestingly, we observed that cholesterol sensitized cells to BE-induced apoptosis, while there was no effect of cholesterol when combined with BetA. These results indicate that BE has potent anti-tumor activity especially in combination with cholesterol.
3.1. Endometrium Adenocarcinom
The data suggest that massive production of proline by proBet-dependent activation of prolidase and inhibition of proline utilization for collagen biosynthesis may represent mechanism for POX-dependent apoptosis in EA cells.
The betulin ester derivatives showed enhanced antitumor activity compared to their non-modified precursors. Esters of betulin can be more potent anticancer agents than their precursor as a consequence of the rapid bioavailability and increased concentration in cancer cells.
- ANTIPROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITY OF NOVEL ACETYLENIC DERIVATIVES OF BETULIN AGAINST G-361 HUMAN MELANOMA CELLS.
All the tested monoesters inhibited cellular growth and 28-O-propynoylbetulin showed the strongest cytotoxic effect. Esterification of the C-3 hydroxyl group of the molecule abolished its growth inhibitory activity.
Altogether, we discovered novel source of UA having potent tumor cell specific cytotoxic property, indicating its therapeutic potential against breast cancer.
Taken together, these data provide evidence for a mechanism that may contribute to the antineoplastic effects of betulin and justify further work to explore its potential roles in lung cancer prevention and treatment.
Our results indicate a potential for faster reepithelialization of wounds in patients with dystrophic EB when treated with Oleogel-S10 but larger studies are needed to confirm significance.
Together, these findings support betulin as a possible treatment for PD and encourage further investigations of betulin as an anti-neurodegenerative agent.
Besides, BE could restore the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum and in lung, catalase (CAT) in serum and reduce the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum and in lung. BE also inhibited the overproductions of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Our findings suggested that BE might effectively ameliorate the progression of COPD via ROCK/NF-κB pathway in mice.
Betulin has immunomodulatory effect on overly activated conventional T and NKT cells and exerts hepatoprotective action in mouse autoimmune hepatitis. The findings provide evidence for the use of H hedyotidea and its constituent betulin in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
In HFD-fed apoE-/- mice, betulin administration significantly reduced lesions in en face aortas and aortic sinuses. Furthermore, betulin administration significantly increased ABCA1 expression and suppressed macrophage positive areas in the aortic sinuses. Moreover, betulin administration improved plasma lipid profiles and enhanced fecal cholesterol excretion in the mice.
The in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of compound 9 was indicated via significant suppression of the carrageenan-induced paw inflammation in mice. The results show, for the first time, that the pyrazole-fused betulin derivative (9) and related compounds have anti-inflammatory properties that could be utilized in drug development.
Our findings demonstrate the protective effect of betulin in lung and liver injury in sepsis. This protection may be mediated by its anti-inflammatory and NF-κB and MAPK inhibitory effects.
Treatment with Betulin diminished pro-inflammatory cytokines, myeloperoxidase activity and bacterial loads in lung tissue during gram-negative pneumonia. Our findings demonstrated that Betulin inhibits pro-inflammatory responses induced by the gram-negative stimuli LPS and E. coli, suggesting that Betulin may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of lung inflammation.
- Herpes simples
Minor virucidal activity of triterpenes was observed, however both TE and tested compounds exhibited high anti-herpetic activity when viruses were pretreated with these drugs prior to infection. Pentacyclic triterpenes inhibit acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant clinical isolates of HSV-1 in the early phase of infection.
The result of in vivo evaluation on diabetic animals demonstrates that the betulin nanoparticles powder show an excellent hypoglycemic effect compared with raw betulin. In addition, the residual ethanol is less than the ICH (International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human) limit for class 3 solvents of 5000 ppm or 0.5% for solvents.
All of these findings demonstrated that BA or BT might ameliorate acute ethanol-induced fatty liver via TLR4 and STAT3 in vivo and in vitro, promising agents for ethanol-induced fatty liver therapies.
- Hepatitis C
After 12 weeks of treatment, reports of fatigue and abdominal discomfort were reduced by 6-fold (p=0.028) and 3-fold (p=0.05), respectively. Dyspepsia was no longer reported (p=0.042) and the effect was significantly different from baseline.
Our study demonstrates that inhibition SREBP pathway can be employed as a therapeutic strategy to treat metabolic diseases including type II diabetes and atherosclerosis. Betulin, which is abundant in birch bark, could be a leading compound for development of drugs for hyperlipidemia.
- Aktinische Keratose
- Treatment of actinic keratoses with a novel betulin-based oleogel. A prospective, randomized, comparative pilot study.
Therapy with betulin-based oleogel was well tolerated.Three patients discontinued therapy because of personal reasons. After three months, the 100% (and > 75%) clearing rates of the lesions were as follows: 64% (86%) with betulin-based oleogel (n = 14),79% (93%) with cryotherapy (n = 14),and 71% (71%) with the combined therapy (n = 14). Histological analysis of biopsies taken before and after treatment (n = 8) showed a reduced degree of dysplasia in the epidermis in all study arms.
Clearing of more than 75 % of the lesions was seen in 79 % of the patients treated with birch bark ointment monotherapy. The response rate of the combined treatment modality was 93 %. Therapy with birch bark ointment was well tolerated. In this pilot study, a standardized birch bark extract was effective in the treatment of actinic keratoses. This therapy is easy to perform and it has no side effects. Birch bark ointment may be a new therapeutic option for actinic keratoses.
- Behandlung aktinischer Keratosen mit Birkenoleogel : eine klinische Phase 2a- Studie mit histologischen Untersuchungen
Die klinische Auswertung ergab für die Monotherapie mit Birken-Oleogel einen mit der Kryotherapie vergleichbaren Therapieerfolg mit Ansprechraten um 80%.
Traditionally, Birch Bark is used to relieve headaches, reduces fevers, eliminates excess water, thins the blood and combats urinary tract infections. The only active ingredient in Aspirin, acetylsalicylic acid, was originally derived from the bark of willow, birch and poplar trees. It is the natural forerunner of synthetic aspirin, and has been invaluable for relieving headaches and general, overall pain. Traditional healers also use Birch Bark to reduce the
inflammation of rheumatism, arthritis, edema and gout. The U.S.F.D.A. has approved the Birch Bark for the treatment of warts. Birch can also be used to soothe itchiness and scalp sores. Salicylic acid, a type of beta hydroxy acid, is found in Birch and is included in many topical acne remedies. Salicylic acid helps to break down whiteheads and blackheads. Folklore remedies praise Birch Bark herbal extract as a natural herbal diuretic. It is especially effective against joint pain and urinary tract infections. Topically, it was used for sores, bruises, burns, warts, eczema, boils and in a hair rinse to stimulate hair growth. Studies are being done on all aspects of this pretty little tree that may make prostate cancer a thing of the past.
Used in its aspirin form, Birch Bark is a blood thinner and is included in many heart-ailment regimens. The American Cancer Society has published information indicating that researchers believe betulinic acid, which can be extracted from Birch Bark, can cause some types of tumor cells to start a process of self-destruction. They also believe this acid slows the growth of melanoma (a form of skin cancer) and other types of tumor cells. German studies concluded that betulinic acid showed anti-tumor activity against cells from certain types of nervous system cancers in children. A study done at Weill Cornell Medical College found that the acid found in Birch Bark, betulinic acid, can kill cancer cells and is predominately helpful in prostate cancer and inhibited the growth of human prostate cancer cells by nearly 96%. The very compound that makes Birch Bark white has been linked to treatment for such devastating human ailments as some melanomas or cancer. The bottom line is that unpronounceable things inhibits proliferation, migration and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Or in simple language prevents cancer cells from growing, spreading and convinces them to kill themselves. Up to this study we thought of betulinic acid only in terms of skin cancer but research tested it on a host of cancer cells and found it to be useful in the treatment of neuroblastoma, rabdomyosarcoma-medulloblastoma, glioma, thyroid cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, leukemia and multiple myeloma, as well as in primary cultures isolated from ovarian carcinoma and cervical carcinoma.
Considered an effective natural diuretic that promotes urine flow it has been used to rid the body of excess water and ease bloating and has been helpful in combating urinary tract infections, cystitis, prostatitis and kidney stones. Through diuresis, it eliminates uric acid, toxins and water from the tissues, which has an important role in eliminating cellulite and obesity. Also due to its diuretic quality it is also used in treating rheumatism, gout, edema, mild arthritic pain, inflammations of the bladder and in expelling worms. Herbalists have long recommended Birch Bark extract for dissolving kidney stones.
Used as a diaphoretic, it produces perspiration (cleansing toxins from the body through the skin) and helps to cool the body and reduce fever, making it helpful for easing the discomforts of colds and other viral infection symptoms and chronic sinusitis. The bactericides of the bark manage to eliminate pathogens of typhoid fever, tuberculosis and diphtheria. Also in internal use, it is used for easing headaches produced by hyperzotomy, dizziness, allergies and for tonifying the nervous system.
As an antiviral, researchers have claimed that betulinic acid extracted from Birch Bark slows the growth of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS. Betulin is also being tested for its effectiveness in the treatment of respiratory syncytical virus (RSV), which can cause severe cold-like symptoms and pneumonia as well as for skin cancer and brain tumors, especially in children. Birch bark has been used as a treatment for the herpes virus, which can cause cold sores, genital infections, chickenpox, shingles, infectious mononucleosis, and are thought to play a role in multiple sclerosis and Karposi’s sarcoma which is the cancer that often puts someone with AIDS over the edge. Betuline-based treatments were several times more effective than the current herpes treatment. The unique biology of betulin and betulinic acid have also shown to help protect the liver from toxic chemicals, and help reduce the toxic effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Native Americans have used Birch Bark as a folk remedy for centuries in a tea and other beverages to treat stomach and intestinal problems such as diarrhea and dysentery. Birch Bark does not cause the gastrointestinal side effects that aspirin causes, and, in fact, soothes stomach upsets. It is used as an absorbent in cases of diarrhea, flatulence, poisoning and gastrointestinal diseases with increased concentration of acid. Birch Bark liquid herbal extracts have anti-ulcer effects, with applications in gastric stomach ulcers and skin diseases.
When used topically in salves, poultices, and liniments it has provided great relief for bruises, burns, acne, eczema, bleeding gums, wounds, skin eruptions (boils and sores) and psoriasis. The salicylates pass through the skin, entering the tissues to inhibit the formation of prostaglandins, thereby reducing pain and inflammation, helpful for treatment of arthritis and rheumatism. It has a detoxifying effect, helping to remove toxins from the blood, improving overall health and relieving problems with joint inflammation. Birch bark can treat pain due to arthritis, backaches and minor injuries. It is often used in formulations to open breathing passages, as it can clear the sinuses and stimulate the mind when inhaled. Used in a hair rinse, it stimulates hair growth, strengthen roots and prevents dandruff.
Birch Bark can act as a gentle herbal sedative, therefore in can help in cases of sleeplessness and insomnia to help you have a good night’s sleep.
Die 5-Elementeanalyse bildet die Energiedynamik von Betulin wie folgt ab:
Schwarz : Studien
Rot: Studien Hauptwirkung
Zum Verständnis der Abkürzungen des Schaubildes siehe Struktur – und Wandlungsmodell der chinesischen Medizin