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Centella asiatica, Chinesische Heilkräuter

Centella asiatica – JI XUE CAO – Wassernabel

Dosis:  3-15 g/Tag

Inhalt

1. Bindegewebsschwäche
2. Telomerasemangel
3. Wundheilung
4. Parkinson
5. Alzheimer
6. Diabetes
7. Adipositas
8. Pulmonale Hypertonie
9. Hypertonie
10. Fibrosen
11. COPD
12. Atopische Dermatitis
13. Venenschwäche
14. Angst
16. Alterung
17. Narben
18. Colitis
19. Hämorrhoiden
20. Netzhautdegeneration
21. Depressionen
22. Muskelschwäche


1. Bindegewebsschwäche

Comparison of the Antiaging and Protective Properties of Plants from the Apiaceae Family

It has been shown that the highest antioxidant capacity can be observed for the extract of herb of Aegopodium podagraria L. When the concentration reached 5% all tested extracts had a positive effect on the cell proliferation of both keratinocytes and fibroblasts. It turned out that the most promising inhibitor of collagenase and elastase enzymes was the extract from Aegopodium podagraria, which inhibits the activity of both enzymes by over 70% in the concentration of 5% positively affecting the condition of skin cells.



2. Telomerasemangel

Discovery of potent telomerase activators: Unfolding new therapeutic and anti-aging perspectives

In particular, in order of importance with respect to telomerase activation from highest to lowest, 08AGTLF, OA, Nutrient 4, TA-65, MA, Nutrient 3 and Nutrient 2, triggered statistically significant increase in telomerase activity compared to the untreated cells. 08AGTLF reached the highest levels of telomerase activity reported to date, at least to our knowledge, increasing telomerase activity by 8.8 folds compared to untreated cells

Reversal of brain aging by targeting telomerase: A nutraceutical approach

On the whole, the findings of the present study provide a strong indication that an increased telomerase activity and TERT expression may be achieved not only in the postnatal or embryonic period, but also in the brains of middle-aged rats through nutraceutical supplementation. The use of the ‚Reverse™‘ supplement may thus contribute to the potential alleviation of a number of central nervous system diseases.



3. Wundheilung

Wound healing activities of different extracts of Centella asiatica in incision and burn wound models: an experimental animal study

All extracts of Centella asiatica facilitate the wound healing process in both incision and burn wounds. Asiatic acid in the ethyl acetate extract seemed to be the most active component for healing the wound.

4. Parkinson

Neurotrophic Effect of Asiatic acid, a Triterpene of Centella asiatica Against Chronic 1-Methyl 4-Phenyl 1, 2, 3, 6-Tetrahydropyridine Hydrochloride/Probenecid Mouse Model of Parkinson’s disease: The Role of MAPK, PI3K-Akt-GSK3β and mTOR Signalling Pathways

The present findings provided more elaborate in vivo evidences to support the neuroprotective effect of AA on dopaminergic neurons of chronic Parkinson’s disease mouse model and the potential of AA to be developed as a possible new therapeutic target to treat PD.



5. Alzheimer

Asiaticoside Attenuates Cell Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis Induced by Aβ1-42 via Inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB Signaling Pathway in Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells

The results showed that pretreatment of asiaticoside (25, 50, and 100 μM) for 12 h significantly attenuated cell growth inhibition and apoptosis, and restored declined mitochondrial membrane potential induced by Aβ1-42 (50 μM) in hBMECs. Asiaticoside also significantly downregulated the elevated expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, TLR4, MyD88, TRAF6, and p-NF-κB p65, as well as inhibited NF-κB p65 translocation from cytoplasm to nucleus induced by Aβ1-42 in hBMECs in a concentration-dependent manner. The possible underlying molecular mechanism of asiaticoside may be through inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. Therefore, asiaticoside may be developed as a novel agent for the prevention and/or treatment of AD clinically.



6. Diabetes

Metabolic alteration in obese diabetes rats upon treatment with Centella asiatica extract

A long-term treatment of obese diabetic rats with CA extract could reverse the glucose and lipid levels, as well as the tricarboxylic acid cycle and amino acid metabolic disorders, back towards normal states. Biochemical analysis also showed an increase of insulin production in diabetic rats upon treatment of CA extract.

Preparation and Safety Evaluation of Centella asiatica Total Glycosides Nitric Oxide Gel and Its Therapeutic Effect on Diabetic Cutaneous Ulcers

According to our research results, the combination of Centella asiatica total glycosides and nitric oxide can accelerate the healing speed of DCU wounds, and 8% Centella asiatica total glycosides nitric oxide gel (CATGNOG) has the best effect in ulcer wound healing. CATGNOG has the advantages of feasible preparation method, controllable quality, good stability at low temperature, and no apparent skin toxicity and reproductive toxicity. It can effectively inhibit the growth of bacteria on the wound surface, relieve the inflammatory reaction of the wound surface, and promote the healing of ulcer wound, which provides a basis for further research of the preparation in the future.

Centella asiatica triterpenes for diabetic neuropathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot clinical study

Comparing CAST (n=21) and Placebo (n=22) groups, significant reductions from baseline for TSS (p<0.01) and paresthesia (p<0.01) were seen only in CAST treated groups. Numbness increased from baseline only in the Placebo group (p<0.05) and was significantly higher than for the CAST group (p<0.001). Burning sensation was reduced in both groups (p<0.01). Plasma triterpene levels in patients treated with CAST mirrored neurotropic concentrations in vitro.CAST is a potential oral treatment for diabetic neuropathy, as it is well tolerated and effective in reducing the severity of DN symptoms in patients with Type II diabetes.



7. Adipositas

Obesity-alleviating potential of asiatic acid and its effects on ACC1, UCP2, and CPT1 mRNA expression in high fat diet-induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats

Our results revealed that AA (20 mg/kg BW), similar to orlistat, reduced the increase in BW; increased bone mineral contents and bone mineral densities; reduced blood glucose levels, insulin resistance, leptin, plasma lipid levels; increased adiponectin, amylase, lipase levels in the blood; showed antioxidant activity; and altered mRNA expression of lipid metabolism-related genes, including ACC, UCP 2, and CPT 1, in the HFD-fed rats. From these results, we concluded that AA possesses significant anti-obesity potential through the suppression of BW gain, lipid lowering action, development of insulin and leptin sensitivity, antioxidant activity, and increased mRNA expression of lipid metabolism-related genes.



8. Pulmonale Hypertonie

Effect of asiaticoside on endothelial cells in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension

The present study demonstrated that AS can prevent the development of hypoxic PH and reverse the established hypoxic PH. AS may activate the nitric oxide (NO)-mediated signals by enhancing the phosphorylation of serine/threonine-specific protein kinase/eNOS, thus promoting NO production, and prevent ECs from hypoxia-induced apoptosis. All these findings imply that AS may be a potential therapeutic option for hypoxic PH patients due to its effect on the vitality and function of endothelial cells.



9. Hypertonie

Effect of asiatic acid on the Ang II-AT 1 R-NADPH oxidase-NF-κB pathway in renovascular hypertensive rats

Asiatic acid or captopril alleviated hemodynamic alterations, RAS activation, oxidative stress, and inflammation in 2K-1C hypertensive rats. These findings indicate that asiatic acid is an antihypertensive agent that ameliorates hemodynamic alterations in 2K-1C hypertensive rats. This effect may involve one or both of the following mechanisms: the direct effect of asiatic acid on RAS activation, oxidative stress and inflammation, and/or asiatic acid acting as an ACE inhibitor agent to inhibit the Ang II-AT1R-NADPH oxidase-NF-κB pathway.

Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. Prevents Hypertension and Protects the Heart in Chronic Nitric Oxide Deficiency Rat Model

After 8 weeks, the administrations of C. asiatica extract and captopril showed significant (p < 0.05) effects on preventing the elevation of SBP, reducing the serum nitric oxide level, as well as increasing the cardiac and aortic MDA content, cardiac ACE activity, and serum brain natriuretic peptide level. C. asiatica extract can prevent the development of hypertension and cardiac damage induced by l-NAME, and these effects were comparable to captopril.



10. Fibrosen

10.1. Lungenfibrose

Asiatic acid ameliorates pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin (BLM) via suppressing pro-fibrotic and inflammatory signaling pathways

The findings indicated that pre-treatment with Asiatic acid inhibited BLM-induced lung injury and fibrosis progression in mice. Further, Asiatic acid down-regulates inflammatory cells infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in lung tissue specimens induced by BLM. Also, Asiatic acid apparently suppressed transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) expression in tissues of lung, accompanied with Collagen I, Collagen III, α-SMA and matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 decreasing, as well as Smads and ERK1/2 inactivation. Of note, Asiatic acid reduces NOD-like receptor, pyrin domain containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. The findings indicated that Asiatic acid might be an effective candidate for pulmonary fibrosis and inflammation treatment.

10.2. Leberfibrose

Asiatic Acid Inhibits Liver Fibrosis by Blocking TGF-beta/Smad Signaling In Vivo and In Vitro

The anti-fibrosis activity and mechanisms of AA were further detected in vitro in HSC-T6. Addition of AA significantly induced Smad7 expression by HSC-T6 cells, thereby inhibiting TGF-beta1-induced Smad2/3 activation, myofibroblast transformation, and collagen matrix expression in a dosage-dependent manner. In contrast, knockdown of Smad7 in HSC-T6 cells prevented AA-induced inhibition of HSC-T6 cell activation and fibrosis in response to TGF-beta1, revealing an essential role for Smad7 in AA-induced anti-fibrotic activities during liver fibrosis in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, AA may be a novel therapeutic agent for liver fibrosis. Induction of Smad7-dependent inhibition of TGF-beta/Smad-mediated fibrogenesis may be a central mechanism by which AA protects liver from injury.



11. COPD

Asiatic acid inhibits pulmonary inflammation induced by cigarette smoke

These findings indicate that AA effectively inhibits pulmonary inflammatory response, which is an important process in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) via suppression of inflammatory mediators and induction of HO-1. Therefore, we suggest that AA has the potential to treat inflammatory disease such as COPD.



12. Atopische Dermatitis

Inhibitory Effect of Centella asiatica Extract on DNCB-Induced Atopic Dermatitis in HaCaT Cells and BALB/c Mice

Collectively, our data demonstrate the pharmacological role and signaling mechanism of CA in the regulation of allergic inflammation of the skin, which supports our hypothesis that CA could potentially be developed as a therapeutic agent for AD.



13. Venenschwäche

A Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Centella asiatica for Improvement of the Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Venous Insufficiency

The pooling of data of similar studies showed that Centella asiatica significantly improved microcirculatory parameters such as transcutaneous partial pressure of CO2 and O2, rate of ankle swelling and venoarteriolar response. However, these studies reported that patients treated with Centella asiatica showed significant improvement in CVI signs such as leg heaviness, pain and oedema. Our results show that Centella asiatica may be beneficial for improving signs and symptoms of CVI

Activity of Centella asiatica in venous insufficiency

In this a review concerning TTFCA, its effects on metabolism in the connective tissue of the vascular wall and on the microcirculation are presented and discussed. This compound is effective in venous insufficiency, reducing ankle edema, foot swelling, capillary filtration rate and by improving microcirculatory parameters (RF, VAR PO2-PCO2). TTFCA displays a significant activity in venous hypertensive microangiopathy and its effects are dose-dependent.

Treatment of edema and increased capillary filtration in venous hypertension with total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica: a clinical, prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized, dose-ranging trial

In conclusion, the improvement of signs and symptoms by TTFCA observed in patients with venous hypertension was well correlated with the improvement of CFR and ankle edema. Dose ranging showed that 180 mg/day is more effective in improving symptoms and CFR.



14. Angst

Evaluation of anxiolytic properties of Gotukola–(Centella asiatica) extracts and asiaticoside in rat behavioral models

The EPM test revealed that Gotukola, its methanol and ethyl acetate extracts as well as the pure asiaticoside, imparted anxiolytic activity. Furthermore, the asiaticoside did not affect locomotor activity, suggesting these compounds do not have sedative effects in rodents.



15. Arthrose

Intra-Articular Route for the System of Molecules 14G1862 from Centella asiatica: Pain Relieving and Protective Effects in a Rat Model of Osteoarthritis

In vivo, 14G1862 significantly reduced mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia, spontaneous pain and motor alterations starting on day 14 up to day 60. The efficacy was higher or comparable to that evoked by triamcinolone acetonide (100 μg i.a.) used as reference drug. Histological evaluation highlighted the improvement of several morphological parameters in MIA + 14G1862-treated animals with particularly benefic effects on joint space and fibrin deposition. In conclusion, i.a. treatment with Centella asiatica is a candidate to be a novel effective approach for osteoarthritis therapy.



16. Alterung

Potential Antiaging Effects of DLBS1649, a Centella asiatica Bioactive Extract

DLBS1649 50 µg/mL showed an effect in the prevention of telomere shortening by 50% and decrease in telomerase activity by 28% compared to the controls (70% and 40%, respectively) in the HEK293 cell cultures. TERT-, CMYC-, SIRT1-, SIRT2-, and KL-expression degression was also reduced (29%, 9%, 18%, 25%, 9%, and 30%, respectively) compared to the controls (46%, 40%, 56%, 44%, and 46%, respectively) after ten serial passages. Calorie-restriction activity from DLBS1649 50 µg/mL was seen, with lower fat droplet counts being detected in the treated samples (37%) than the controls (28%) in 3T3L1 cells. DLBS1649 2 mg/mL increased restricted mean survival time in male and female D. melanogaster (23.87% [p<0.05] and 12.58%, respectively).



17. Narben

Inhibition of hypertrophic scar formation with oral asiaticoside treatment in a rabbit ear scar model

Gross observation and histological findings showed that oral AS treatment could significantly inhibit HS formation in a dose dependent manner. Semi‐quantification of scar elevation index at days 7, 15, 30, and 60, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction at days 30 and 60 also provided the evidences of reduced scar thickness and inhibited fibrotic gene expressions of collagens I, III, TGF‐β1, interleukins 1β, 6 and 8, and enhanced gene expression of SMAD 7 and PPAR‐γ with a dose‐dependent manner. These results indicated that AS is likely to serve as a systemic therapeutic agent of HS treatment for those who may have scar‐prone constitute via anti‐inflammation, inhibiting fibrotic process, and enhancing matrix degradation.



18. Colitis

Madecassic acid, the contributor to the anti-colitis effect of madecassoside, enhances the shift of Th17 toward Treg cells via the PPARγ/AMPK/ACC1 pathway

Both compound C and AMPK siRNA inhibited the madecassic acid-mediated downregulation of ACC1 expression and shift of Th17 cells to Treg cells under Th17-polarizing conditions. GW9662, T0070907 and PPARγ siRNA blocked the effect of madecassic acid on AMPK activation, ACC1 expression and shift of Th17 cells to Treg cells. Furthermore, madecassic acid was identified as a PPARγ agonist, as it promoted PPARγ transactivation. The correlation between activation of PPARγ and AMPK, downregulation of ACC1 expression, restoration of Th17/Treg balance and attenuation of colitis by madecassic acid was validated in mice with DSS-induced colitis. In conclusion, madecassic acid was the active form of madecassoside in ameliorating colitis by restoring the Th17/Treg balance via regulating the PPARγ/AMPK/ACC1 pathway.



19. Hämorrhoiden

Comparison of Centella with Flavonoids for Treatment of Symptoms in Hemorrhoidal Disease and After Surgical Intervention: A Randomized Clinical Trial

The HD median time-to-stop bleeding was 2 weeks for Groups A and B; 3 weeks for Group C. VAS scores comparison among Groups (irritation): A vs C, p = 0.007; B vs C, p = 0.041; and A vs B, p = 0.782 resulted respectively. As for operated hemorrhoids, the time-to-stop bleeding was 3 and 4 weeks in Groups A and B and 5 in Group C. Histopathology showed an association between flavonoids and piles’ fibrosis (p = 0.008). Phlebotonics in HD, as well as after surgery, showed significant beneficial effects. Flavonoids are the most effective phlebotonics against bleeding and anal irritation.



20. Netzhautdegeneration

Centella asiatica extract prevents visual impairment by promoting the production of rhodopsin in the retina

In addition, CA-HE50 inhibited degeneration/apoptosis of the retina in the context of MNU-induced toxicity (P < 0.05). In particular, CA-HE50 at 200 mg/kg inhibited the cleavage of pro-caspase-3 and pro-poly (ADP-ribose)-polymerase and maintained the expressions of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase-1 similar to normal control levels. Rhodopsin/opsin expression was maintained at a higher level than in normal controls.A series of experiments confirmed that CA-HE50 was effective for inhibiting or preventing age-related eye damage/degeneration. Based on these results, we believe it is worthwhile to develop drugs or functional foods related to age-related eye degeneration using CA-HE50.



21. Depressionen

Effect of total triterpenes from Centella asiatica on the depression behavior and concentration of amino acid in forced swimming mice.

Imipramine and total triterpenes from Centella asiatica reduced the immobility time and ameliorated the imbalance of amino acid levels. The total triterpenes from Centella asiatica had antidepressant activity.



22. Muskelschwäche

Centella asiatica Improves Physical Performance and Health-Related Quality of Life in Healthy Elderly Volunteer

The results showed that after 2 months of treatment, C. asiatica at doses of 500 and 750 mg per day increased lower extremity strength assessed via the 30-s chair stand test. In addition, the higher doses of C. asiatica could improve the life satisfaction subscale within the physical function subscale. Therefore, the results from this study appear to support the traditional reputation of C. asiatica on strength improvement, especially in the lower extremities of the elderly. C. asiatica also possesses the potential to be a natural resource for vigor and strength increase, in healthy elderly persons. However, further research is essential.

 

Wirkung

The mechanism of action involves promoting fibroblast proliferation and increasing the synthesis of collagen and intracellular fibronectin content and also improvement of the tensile strength of newly formed skin as well as inhibiting the inflammatory phase of hypertrophic scars and keloids.

Abgesehen von einer Stimulierung der Kollagensynthese in verschiedenen Zelltypen wurde gezeigt, dass die Asiaticoside die Zugfestigkeit der neu gebildeten Haut erhöhen und die Wundheilung fördern.
Es wurde postuliert, dass eine der primären Wirkungen von CA auf das Bindegewebe durch Stärkung der geschwächten Venen wirkt [ 24 ]. Es wurde postuliert, dass CA bei der Aufrechterhaltung des Bindegewebes helfen könnte[ 25 ]. Bei der Behandlung von Sklerodermie könnte es auch dabei helfen, das Bindegewebewachstum zu stabilisieren, seine Bildung zu reduzieren, da es Berichten zufolge die Bildung von Hyaluronidase und Chondroitinsulfat stimuliert und eine ausgleichende Wirkung auf das Bindegewebe ausübt[ 25 ].
In der indischen Literatur wurde beschrieben, dass CA ZNS-Wirkungen besitzt, wie z. B. stimulierend-nervöses Tonikum, verjüngendes, beruhigendes, beruhigendes und intelligenzförderndes Eigentum[ 27 ]
Es wurden die antidepressiven Wirkungen der gesamten Triterpene von CA auf die Immobilitätszeit bei erzwungen schwimmenden Mäusen und die Konzentration von Aminosäuren im Gehirngewebe von Mäusen beobachtet.
Asiatisches CA erhöht die zerebralen GABA-Spiegel, was seine traditionelle Verwendung als Anxiolytikum und Antikonvulsivum erklärt.
CA ist dafür bekannt, das Gehirn und das Nervensystem zu revitalisieren, die Aufmerksamkeitsspanne und Konzentration zu erhöhen und das Altern zu bekämpfen[ 8 ]
Es wurde über eine Laborstudie berichtet, in der festgestellt wurde, dass ein wässriger Extrakt von CA bei der Hemmung von durch Ethanolverabreichung induzierten Magenläsionen wirksam ist [ 39 ]. Die Autoren schlussfolgerten, dass der CA-Extrakt vermutlich die Barriere der Magenschleimhaut stärkte und die schädliche Wirkung freier Radikale reduzierte.
Das wässrige CAE zeigte bei beiden Modellen eine signifikante antinozizeptive Aktivität, ähnlich Aspirin, aber weniger stark als Morphin, und eine signifikante entzündungshemmende Aktivität, vergleichbar mit Mefenaminsäure. Diese Ergebnisse legten nahe, dass die wässrigen CA-Extrakte antinozizeptive und entzündungshemmende Wirkungen besitzen, was die traditionelle Verwendung dieser Pflanze bei der Behandlung von entzündlichen Erkrankungen oder Rheuma rechtfertigte [ 50 ].
In der Studie wurde der Schluss gezogen, dass Madecassosid Maus-CIA im Wesentlichen verhinderte und der Hauptwirkstoff von CA sein könnte, der für seine klinischen Anwendungen bei rheumatoider Arthritis verantwortlich ist, und dass die zugrunde liegenden Wirkungsmechanismen hauptsächlich durch die Regulierung der abnormalen humoralen und zellulären Immunität verursacht werden könnten als Schutz vor gemeinsamer Zerstörung[ 51 ].
Außerdem zeigten die Ergebnisse, dass die Extrakte von C. asiatica die Nahrungs- und Wasseraufnahme und das Körpergewicht senkten, was darauf hindeutet, dass der Extrakt von C. asiatica die Fettleibigkeit beeinflussen kann, indem er das vom Zentralnervensystem kontrollierte Nahrungszentrum beeinflusst ( Halpern et al., 2008 ; Blanco et al., 2011). Darüber hinaus kann das Potenzial von asiatischer Säure als Mittel gegen Fettleibigkeit durch die Tatsache belegt werden, dass sie die Gewichtszunahme unterdrückt und die Empfindlichkeit von Leptin und Insulin erhöht.
Der C. asiatica -Extrakt und seine Triterpenoide hatten bestimmte therapeutische und lindernde Wirkungen auf Akne, Haarausfall, Vitiligo, atopische Dermatitis und Wunden.
Die Wirkungen von C. asiatica auf Atemwegserkrankungen spiegeln sich hauptsächlich in seiner Fähigkeit wider, die Lungenfibrose zu verbessern, die chronisch obstruktive Lungenerkrankung zu verbessern und die Lungenschädigung und bestimmte Wirkungen gegen Lungenkrebs zu verringern.

https://www.frontiersin.org/files/Articles/568032/fphar-11-568032-HTML/image_m/fphar-11-568032-g003.jpg

 

Artikel


Pharmacological Review on Centella asiatica: A Potential Herbal Cure-all

Therapeutic Potential of Centella asiatica and Its Triterpenes: A Review

Pharmacological Effects of Centella asiatica on Skin Diseases: Evidence and Possible Mechanisms

Centella asiatica – Phytochemie und Mechanismen der Neuroprotektion und kognitiven Verbesserung

 

 

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