Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation and skeletal muscle in healthy and muscle-wasting conditions
The data presented here indicate that the beneficial effects of HMB have been well characterized in strength-power and endurance exercise. HMB attenuates exercise-induced muscle damage and enhances muscle hypertrophy and strength, aerobic performance, resistance to fatigue, and regenerative capacity. HMB is particularly effective in untrained individuals who are exposed to strenuous exercise and in trained individuals who are exposed to periods of high physical stress.
Long-term Effects of Calcium β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate and Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Muscular Function in Older Adults With and Without Resistance Training: A Randomized, Double-blind, Controlled Study
HMB+D had a significant benefit on lean body mass within the nonexercise group at 6 months (0.44 ± 0.27 kg, HMB+D vs -0.33 ± 0.28 kg, control, p < .05). In nonexercisers, improvement in knee extension peak torque (60°/s) was significantly greater in HMB+D-supplemented participants than in the nonsupplemented group (p = .04) at 3 months, 10.9 ± 5.7 Nm and -5.2 ± 5.9 Nm, respectively. A composite functional index, integrating changes in handgrip, Get Up, and Get Up and Go measurements, was developed. HMB+D + no exercise resulted in significant increases in the functional index compared with those observed in the control + no exercise group at 3 (p = .03), 6 (p = .04), and 12 months (p = .04).
The Effect of a 12-Week Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) Supplementation on Highly-Trained Combat Sports Athletes: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study
Following HMB supplementation, fat-free mass increased (p = 0.049) with a simultaneous reduction of fat mass (p = 0.016) in comparison to placebo. In turn, after HMB supplementation, the following indicators increased significantly in comparison to the placebo: the time to reach ventilatory threshold (p < 0.0001), threshold load (p = 0.017) and the threshold HR (p < 0.0001), as well as anaerobic peak power (p = 0.005), average power (p = 0.029), maximum speed (p < 0.001) and post-exercise lactate concentrations (p < 0.0001).
The effects of 12 weeks of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate free acid supplementation on muscle mass, strength, and power in resistance-trained individuals: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
HMB-FA resulted in increased total strength (bench press, squat, and deadlift combined) over the 12-week training (77.1 ± 18.4 vs. 25.3 ± 22.0 kg, p < 0.001); a greater increase in vertical jump power (991 ± 168 vs. 630 ± 167 W, p < 0.001); and increased lean body mass gain (7.4 ± 4.2 vs. 2.1 ± 6.1 kg, p < 0.001) in HMB-FA- and placebo-supplemented groups, respectively. During the overreaching cycle, HMB-FA attenuated increases in CK (-6 ± 91 vs. 277 ± 229 IU/l, p < 0.001) and cortisol (-0.2 ± 2.9 vs. 4.5 ± 1.7 μg/dl, p < 0.003) in the HMB-FA- and placebo-supplemented groups, respectively.
Effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, arginine, and lysine supplementation on strength, functionality, body composition, and protein metabolism in elderly women
After 12 wk, there was a 17% improvement in the “get-up-and-go” functionality test in the experimental group (−2.3 ± 0.5 s) but no change in the placebo group (0.0 ± 0.5 s; P = 0.002). The improvement in functionality also was reflected by increased limb circumference, leg strength, and handgrip strength (all P < 0.05) and positive trends in fat-free mass (P = 0.08). Whole-body protein synthesis, estimated with the 15N-glycine tracer technique over a 24-h free-living period, increased approximately 20% in the experimental treatment group as opposed to the placebo group (P = 0.03).
Effects of six-month supplementation with beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, glutamine, and arginine on vascular endothelial function of older adults
Paired samples t-tests revealed a 27% increase in flow-mediated dilation among the treatment group (p=0.003) while no change was observed in the placebo group (p=0.651). Repeated-measures ANOVA verified a significant time by group interaction (p=0.038). Although no significant changes were observed for hsCRP or TNF-α, a trend was observed for increasing hsCRP among the placebo group only (p=0.059).
Effect of a Specialized Amino Acid Mixture on Human Collagen Deposition
Collagen synthesis is significantly enhanced in healthy elderly volunteers by the oral administration of a mixture of arginine, HMB, and glutamine. This provides a safe nutritional means for increasing wound repair in patients.
Butyrate Increases Intracellular Calcium Levels and Enhances Growth Hormone Release from Rat Anterior Pituitary Cells via the G-Protein-Coupled Receptors GPR41 and 43
Treatment with butyrate promoted hGH synthesis and improved basal and GHRH-induced hGH-secretion. By acting through GPR41 and 43, butyrate enhanced intracellular free cytosolic Ca2+. Gene-specific silencing of these receptors led to a partial inhibition of the butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ rise resulting in a decrease of hGH secretion. This study suggests that butyrate is a metabolic intermediary, which contributes to the secretion and, therefore, to the metabolic actions of GH during fasting.
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