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Ernährung, Leinsamen

Leinsamen

Dosis:  25g/Tag

Inhalt

  1.      Diabetes
  2.      Hypercholesterinämie
  3.      Ulcus cruris
  4.      Unfruchtbarkeit
  5.      Übergewicht
  6.       Verbrennungen
  7.      PCOS
  8.      Osteoporose
  9.      Atopische Dermatitis
  10.      Krebs
  11.     Karpaltunnelsyndrom
  12.     Hypertonie
  13.     Sexualhormonmangel
  14.     Muskeldystrophie
  15.     Colitis
  16.     Metabolisches Syndrom
  17.     Fettleber
  18.     Entzündungen
  19.     Arteriosklerose
  20.     Wundheilung
  21.     Durchfall
  22.     Brustspannung
  23.     Prostatahypertrophie
  24.     Depressionen
  25.     Stress
  26.     ADHD
  27.     Sjögren’s syndrome
  28.     Menopause

 

  1. Diabetes

Mice after HFD feeding for 16 weeks (60% fat-derived calories) exhibited systemic insulin resistance, which was greatly attenuated by medium dose of FO (M-FO), paralleling with differential accumulation of ALA and its n-3 derivatives across serum lipid fractions. Moreover, M-FO was sufficient to effectively block the metabolic activation of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), thereby improving adipose tissue insulin signaling.

SDG treatment reduced the incidence of diabetes using serum glucose levels by 75% in the streptozotocin model of diabetes and by 72% in the BBdp rat model of diabetes. These reductions in development of diabetes were associated with decreases in oxidative stress measured by serum and pancreatic malondialdehyde (MDA). SDG delays the development of diabetes in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat model of type 2 diabetes and this effect was associated with a reduction in serum MDA and glycated haemoglobin A1C. The data suggest that SDG may have a great potential for reducing the incidence of type 1 diabetes and delaying the development of type 2 diabetes in humans.

These findings indicate that chronic SDG treatment can correct neuropathic hyperalgesia and allodynia in mice with type 1 diabetes. Mechanistically, the analgesic actions of SDG in diabetic mice may be associated with its antioxidant activity

 

  1.        Hypercholesterinämie

In conclusion, feeding flaxseed meal and oat hulls induced intestinal fermentation; however, the former depressed growth performance whereas the latter did not have any effect. Addition of flaxseed meal and oat hulls in growing pig diets reduced fat digestibility and serum cholesterol and stimulated malabsorption of primary BA and excretion of secondary BA and NS.

Based on the findings obtained in this research, flaxseed powder intake desirably reduced serum lipids. The differences between two groups on the basis of analysis of covariance test were significant. In all cases except for the HDL-c, this is an effective intervention. Therefore, flaxseed may be regarded as a useful therapeutic food for reducing hyperlipidemia.

 

  1.       Ulcus cruris

Clinical and metabolic response to flaxseed oil omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in patients with diabetic foot ulcer: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Overall, omega-3 fatty acids supplementation for 12weeks among subjects with DFU had beneficial effects on parameters of ulcer size, markers of insulin metabolism, serum hs-CRP, plasma TAC and GSH levels. In addition, flaxseed oil omega-3 fatty acids may have played an indirect role in wound healing due to its effects on improved metabolic profiles.

 

  1.       Unfruchtbarkeit

Effects of different fat sources (saturated and unsaturated) on reproductive performance and biological indices of ewes during flushing period.

It was concluded that supplementing the flushing diet with calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) increased blood metabolites and hormones related to reproductive performance; and improved fertility, lambing rate and ewes of CaFL treatment have the highest number of lambs (16 lambs) between different groups. Using saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, especially in their CSFA forms during flushing period, could improve the reproduction problems induced by progesterone deficiency, lack of durability of the fetus due to hormonal instability, and abortion control factors.

 

  1.       Übergewicht

Subgroup analyses showed that using whole flaxseed in doses ≥30 g d-1 , longer-term interventions (≥12 weeks) and studies including participants with higher BMI (≥ 27 kg m-2 ) had positive effects on body composition. Whole flaxseed is a good choice for weight management particularly for weight reduction in overweight and obese participants

The levels of leptin decreased and adiponectin increased after a dietary addition of 25 g of flaxseed/day for one menstrual cycle. We conclude that VEGF and leptin correlate significantly in normal human breast tissue in vivo and that dietary addition of flaxseed affect adipokine levels in the breast.

The FF group displayed the following (P < 0.05): a higher total lean mass (+7%), a lower total (-16%) and intra-abdominal (-24%) fat mass, a smaller adipocyte area (-30%), a higher femoral mass (+5%), bone mineral density (+5%) and radiodensity (+20%), and a higher maximum force (+10%) and breaking strength (+11%).

 

  1.        Verbrennungen

EVALUATION OF CRUDE FLAXSEED (Linum usitatissimum L) OIL IN BURN WOUND HEALING IN NEW ZEALAND RABBITS.

All along the trial, the rate of wounds contraction was found to be significantly higher in burns treated with LSO which had also a significant shorter healing period (26±5.89 days) as compared to the other treatments. LSO healed wounds included less inflammatory cells, complete epithelium regeneration with a reduced thickness of the new formed dermis, discreet fibrosis, enhanced neo-vascularization, increased number of collagen fibers, fibroblasts and many myofibroblasts. Additionally, no adverse effects of LSO on cicatrization process were recorded.

 

  1.     PCOS

The Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Vitamin E Co-Supplementation on Indices of Insulin Resistance and Hormonal Parameters in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids plus vitamin E led to significant reductions in serum total testosterone (-0.5±0.7 vs. -0.1±0.5 ng/mL, P=0.008) and free testosterone (-1.2±2.1 vs. -0.2±1.7, P=0.04) compared to the placebo group. We did not observe any significant effect of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation on fasting plasma glucose and other hormonal profiles. Omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation for 12 weeks in PCOS women significantly improved indices of insulin resistance, total and free testosterone.   

 

  1.      Osteoporose

For biomechanical and computed tomography analysis and fatty acids composition, the F group showed higher maximum force (+12%, p < 0.05), breaking strength (+25%, p < 0.05), rigidity (+17%, p < 0.0001), and femoral head radiodensity (+15%, p < 0.05) and presented lower total polyunsaturated fatty acids (-17%, p < 0.0001) and arachidonic acid (-44%, p < 0.0001) and higher ALA (+695%, p < 0.0001) and EPA (+160%, p < 0.05). Fatty acids composition of flaxseed flour, as well as its protein profile and calcium content, were able to improve the bone quality, which may be associated with lower serum levels of arachidonic acid and higher EPA, showing an anti-inflammatory profile and increased deposition of organic matrix during the post-weaning period, and may result in prevention of future osteoporosis.

In serum, FS+LD and LD induced lower TRAP-5β and osteocalcin, and higher OPG and OPG/RANKL ratio versus NEG and FS (p < 0.05). In vertebrae, FS+LD induced higher OPG and lower osteocalcin versus NEG (p < 0.01) and did not differ from LD and FS. FS+LD improved bone microarchitecture versus NEG, FS, and LD (p < 0.05). In conclusion, FS+LD protects bone tissue because of a reduction in bone turnover.

 

  1.      Atopische Dermatitis

Therapeutic Effects of Fermented Flax Seed Oil on NC/Nga Mice with Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions

Distribution of IL-4-positive cells in the corium near the basal portion of the epithelium in the AT group was reduced. FFSO treatment reduced the number of cells showing NF-κB p65 and iNOS expression. The level of LXR in the AT group was higher than that in the AE group, and elevation of PKC expression was significantly reduced by FFSO treatment. Conclusion. FFSO could alleviate symptoms of AD such as epithelial damage, redness, swelling, and pruritus.

 

  1.     Krebs    

Evaluating the cytotoxicity of flaxseed orbitides for potential cancer treatment.

Flaxseed as well as its oil component possess antitumor activities against different types of cancer and have been used by some patients as complementary and/or alternative medicine. Linoorbitides (LOBs) are one family of flaxseed compounds that has implications for anticancer and antioxidant activity.

10.1.    Gebärmutterkrebs

Whole flaxseed diet alters estrogen metabolism to promote 2-methoxtestradiol-induced apoptosis in hen ovarian cancer

2-methoxyestradiol-induced antitumor effects were further validated by in human ovarian cancer cells. This study details the effect of flaxseed diet on estrogen metabolism and demonstrates the antiovarian cancer effects of 2-methoxyestradiol.  

10.2.    Bronchialkrebs

Flax seed oil inhibits metastatic melanoma and reduces lung tumor formation in mice

Elevated marker enzyme activities in serum and altered enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants were recovered during FSO treatment. Altered metastatic markers levels favoring the formation of metastatic lesions were observed in the disease group. FSO administration re-altered the levels of these markers in the treatment group contributing to better control of metastasis development.These results support the protective role of FSO against lung cancer metastasis.

10.3.    Brustkrebs

Supplementing SO alters total PL and PL classes by increasing membrane content of n-3 LCPUFA and lowering AA (in vivo), which is associated with increased CD95-mediated apoptosis, thereby suggesting a possible mechanism for reduce tumor survival.

Current evidence suggests that flax may be associated with decreased risk of breast cancer. Flax demonstrates antiproliferative effects in breast tissue of women at risk of breast cancer and may protect against primary breast cancer. Mortality risk may also be reduced among those living with breast cancer.

 

  1. Karpaltunnelsyndrom

A Topical Gel From Flax Seed Oil Compared With Hand Splint in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

The topical use of flax seed oil gel is more effective in the improvement of symptoms and function of patients with mild to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome as compared with hand splint, and it can be introduced as an effective treatment.

 

  1. Hypertonie

Daily intake of flaxseed powder lowered blood pressure in prediabetes but did not improve glycemic and IR indices.

Flaxseed induced a decrease in many oxylipins, which corresponded with a reduced risk of elevated cBP. These data extend the antihypertensive properties of flaxseed to cBP without cardiac involvement but rather through oxylipins. This study provides further support for oxylipins as therapeutic targets in hypertension.

This meta-analysis of RCTs showed significant reductions in both SBP and DBP following supplementation with various flaxseed products.

A recent, randomized controlled year-long trial observed impressive reductions in blood pressure in patients with hypertension consuming flaxseed daily. Insight into the proposed anti-hypertensive mechanism of flaxseed and the implications of flaxseed as a potential global anti-hypertensive therapy will be discussed.

SDG decreased angiotensin I-induced rise in the systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures by 60, 58, and 51%, respectively, at 15 minutes and 48, 46, and 30%, respectively, at 60 minutes. The data suggest that SDG reduced the angiotensin I-induced rise in the arterial pressures and hence SDG is a potent ACE inhibitor.

Patients who entered the trial with a SBP ≥ 140 mm Hg at baseline obtained a significant reduction of 15 mm Hg in SBP and 7 mm Hg in DBP from flaxseed ingestion. The antihypertensive effect was achieved selectively in hypertensive patients. Circulating α-linolenic acid levels correlated with SBP and DBP, and lignan levels correlated with changes in DBP. In summary, flaxseed induced one of the most potent antihypertensive effects achieved by a dietary intervention.

 

  1. Sexualhormonmangel

The results of this study shows that the brain weight of mice did not change significantly, but the sex hormone levels in the experimental groups in comparison with the control groups increased significantly (P<0.05). The hydroalcoholic extract of flax seed had no effect on the brain weight, but this extract improved the sexual hormone levels.

Analysis of data revealed that these parameters were significantly (P < 0.01) increased in flax oil treated animals as compared to control.It was concluded from the present study that flax seed oil has beneficial effects on reproductive health of buffalo bull.

 

  1. Muskeldystrophie

Dietary Flaxseed Mitigates Impaired Skeletal Muscle Regeneration: in Vivo, in Vitro and in Silico Studies.

These findings indicate that flaxseed may exert potent beneficial effects by preserving skeletal muscle regeneration and homeostasis partly through an ALA-mediated action. Thus, dietary flaxseed and ALA may serve as a useful strategy for treating patients with muscle dystrophies.

 

  1. Colitis

Flaxseed extract exhibits mucosal protective effect in acetic acid induced colitis in mice by modulating cytokines, antioxidant and antiinflammatory mechanisms

These results suggest that Fs.Cr ameliorates the severity of AA colitis by reducing goblet cell depletion, scavenging oxygen-derived free radicals, reduce neutrophil infiltration that may be attributed due to decreasing IFN-γ and TNF-α and increasing IL-17 levels.

 

  1. Metabolisches Syndrom

Flaxseed Supplementation in Metabolic Syndrome Management: A Pilot Randomized, Open-labeled, Controlled Study.

The percentage of individuals with MetS decreased from baseline by 50% and 82% in the control and intervention group, respectively. The reversion rate of central obesity was higher in the flaxseed group (36%) than control group (13%). Moreover, greater reduction in insulin resistance was observed in flaxseed group in comparison with control group (p < 0.001). Body weight, waist circumference, and body mass index decreased significantly in both groups with a significantly greater reduction in flaxseed group in comparison with controls (p < 0.05).

 

  1. Fettleber

Therapeutic effect of flax-based diets on fatty liver in aged laying hens

Taken together, our data indicate a potential synergistic relationship between the fatty acid and lignan content in flaxseed which attenuated the progression of NAFLD in aged laying hens. Although more research is necessary, these findings demonstrate the potential use of whole flaxseed for the treatment and prevention of NAFLD in humans.

 

  1. Entzündungen

FX exerts an anti-chemotactic and anti-inflammatory effect on CD8(+) T cell/adipocyte paracrine interactions (cross-talk), which has the potential to mitigate macrophage chemotaxis which drives components of the obese phenotype

This study suggests that flaxseed added to a weight loss diet could be an important nutritional strategy to reduce inflammation markers such as CRP and TNF-α.

The fixed oil exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of protein exudation vascular permeability, comparable to standard aspirin. The oil also inhibited the leukocyte migration in pleural exudates in a dose-dependent manner. Production of less vasodilatory (PGE3) and chemotactic (LTB5) eicosanoids through EPA (derived from linolenic acid) metabolism could account for the above observations.

 

  1.     Arteriosklerose

SDG content of some commonly used food has been described. SDG in very low dose (15 mg/ kg) suppressed the development of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis by 73 % and this effect was associated with reduction in serum total cholesterol, LDL-C, and oxidative stress, and an increase in the levels HDL-C. In conclusion SDG suppresses, slow the progression and regresses the atherosclerosis. It could serve as an alternative medicine for the prevention, slowing of progression and regression of atherosclerosis and hence for the treatment of coronary artery disease, stroke and peripheral arterial vascular diseases.

The results of serum lipid and oxidative stress analysis suggested that the antiatherogenic effect of flaxseed, α-tocopherol and their combination added to a high-fat diet in diabetic hamsters was based primarily on their antioxidative role, demonstrated by decreased serum lipid peroxidation and increased liver glutathione content. Improvements of serum glucose and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were observed and may have contributed to the prevention of diabetic macroangiopathy evidenced in the histopathological examination.

The data suggest that flaxseed flour supplementation in healthy wistar rats for a prolonged period may decrease the thickness of the aorta and may be used as a preventive measure in modulating some modifiable risk factors related to cardiovascular disease.

In our study, high dose of ground flaxseed incorporated to lard-based diet prevented the progression of atherosclerotic lesions in estrogen deficiency rats by decreasing platelet and endothelium reactivity. Assessment of platelet adhesion, serum soluble adhesion molecule sVCAM, and endothelium integrity molecule vWF could be useful to detect the risk for atherosclerotic lesions in estrogen deficiency states and to estimate the effect of flaxseed supplementation.

Dietary flaxseed supplementation resulted in a significant ≈40% reduction in plaque formation (P = 0.033). Animals in both groups II and III displayed improved contraction and endothelium-dependent vessel relaxation. Dietary flaxseed is a valuable strategy to accelerate the regression of atherosclerotic plaques; however, flaxseed intervention did not demonstrate a clear beneficial effect on the vessel contractile response and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation.

Flax reduced by 67% the number of animals with aortic arch lesions. All three doses of flax reduce the severity of lesion formation compared with ovx controls. These results support the efficacy of flaxseed in reducing cardiovascular disease risk.

 

  1. Wundheilung

The possible role of fatty acids also present in the extract is suggested. The study shows the hydrophobic flax fiber components as wound healing activators, with anti-inflammatory cannabidiol acting in synergy with sterols, and migration and proliferation promoting agents

In vitro diffusion capacity and in vivo wound healing activity of phenolic cream were evaluated on Wistar rats. The collective properties and healing effect of the flaxseed suggested wound healing capacity.

 

  1. Durchfall

Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Linum usitatissimum (Flaxseed) in infectious and non-infectious diarrhea.

Our results indicate that Linum usitatissimum (Flaxseed) extract exhibits antidiarrheal and antispasmodic activities by virtue of its antimotility and antisecretory effects which are mediated possibly through inhibition of Ca(++) channels, though additional mechanism(s) cannot be ruled out. Flaxseed extract proved effective against both enteric and non-enteric pathogens causing diarrhea, thus ensuring wide coverage and rationalizing its medicinal use in both the infectious and non-infectious diarrhea.

 

  1. Brustspannung

Comparing the effects of dietary flaxseed and omega-3 Fatty acids supplement on cyclical mastalgia in Iranian women: a randomized clinical trial.

The results of this study demonstrated that flaxseed bread diet was an effective approach in decreasing cyclical mastalgia and could be prescribed to women as a simple treatment with few complications.

 

  1. Prostatahypertrophie

Preventive effects of lignan extract from flax hulls on experimentally induced benign prostate hyperplasia.

This effect was dose dependent. Higher serum and urine levels of ENL correlated well with the dose of extract provided to rats. It was concluded that the lignan-rich flaxseed hull extract prevented the TP-induced BPH indicating it might be beneficial in the prevention of BPH.

 

  1. Depressionen

The flax seed and imipramine groups had significantly increased sucrose consumption, decreased cortisol (blood), decreased epinephrine and norepinephrine concentration, decreased monoamine oxidase A and B activity, and decreased superoxide dismutase activity. Lipid peroxidation was completely inhibited. In contrast, pomegranate peel extract also completely inhibited lipid peroxidation in the brain, and reduced enzyme activity and hormone concentration but to a lesser extent than flax seed.

The results indicated that the chronic stress-induced increases in the serum corticosterone and ACTH were reversed by treatment with high doses of SDG. Chronic treatment with SDG also affected the body weight of mice and IL-6, IL1β levels in the frontal cortex. In addition, chronic stress procedure induced a decrease in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the frontal cortex of mice; while treatment with SDG reversed this reduction of BDNF. All these results provide compelling evidence that the behavioral effects of flaxseed SDG in the ovariectomized mice might be related to their modulating effects on the neuroendocrine-immune network and neurotrophin factor expression.

 

  1. Stress

Antidepressant-like effect of flaxseed secoisolariciresinol diglycoside in ovariectomized mice subjected to unpredictable chronic stress.

The results indicated that the chronic stress-induced increases in the serum corticosterone and ACTH were reversed by treatment with high doses of SDG. Chronic treatment with SDG also affected the body weight of mice and IL-6, IL1β levels in the frontal cortex. In addition, chronic stress procedure induced a decrease in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the frontal cortex of mice; while treatment with SDG reversed this reduction of BDNF. All these results provide compelling evidence that the behavioral effects of flaxseed SDG in the ovariectomized mice might be related to their modulating effects on the neuroendocrine-immune network and neurotrophin factor expression.

 

  1. ADHD

Supplementation with flax oil and vitamin C improves the outcome of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

There was significant improvement in the symptoms of ADHD reflected by reduction in total hyperactivity scores of ADHD children derived from ADHD rating scale.

 

  1. Sjögren’s syndrome

Oral flaxseed oil (Linum usitatissimum) in the treatment for dry-eye Sjögren’s syndrome patients.

Therapy with oral flaxseed oil capsules 1 or 2 g/day reduces ocular surface inflammation and ameliorates the symptoms of keratoconjunctivitis sicca in Sjögren’s syndrome patients. Long-term studies are needed to confirm the role of this therapy for keratoconjunctivitis sicca in Sjögren’s syndrome.

 

  1. Menopause

This research demonstrated the efficacy of herbal medicines in alleviating hot flashes, which are embraced both with people and health providers of Iran Therefore, herbal medicine can be seen as an alternative treatment for women experiencing hot flashes.

The empirical research was conducted in an obstetrics and gynecology outpatient department of a university hospital and involved 140 menopausal women who were divided into 4 groups. The menopausal symptoms decreased and the quality of life increased among the women who used flaxseed for 3 months.

 

Wirkungen:

The majority of studies demonstrate that SDG interferes with the development of different types of diseases like cardiovascular, diabetic, lupus nephritis, bone, kidney, menopause, reproduction, mental stress, immunity, atherosclerosis, hemopoietic, liver necrosis and urinary disorders due to its various biological properties including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, antiobesity, antihypolipidemic and neuroprotective effects. Moreover, SDG has a defending mediator against various cancers by modulating multiple cell signaling pathways. As discussed in this review, SDG has shown therapeutic potential against a number of human diseases and can be recommended for discerning consumers.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26215288

Flaxseed extract reduced the diarrheal score in mice, by 39%, 63.90% and 68.34% at the respective doses of 100, 300 and 500mg/kg. Intestinal secretions were reduced by 24.12%, 28.09% and 38.80%, whereas the intestinal motility was reduced by 31.66%, 46.98% and 56.20% at respective doses of 100, 300 and 500mg/kg. When tested on isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, Flaxseed extract produced a dose-dependent inhibition of both spontaneous and high K(+) (80mM)-induced contractions, and shifted the concentration-response curves of Ca(++) to the right with suppression of the maximum response, similar to that caused by verapamil.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25433250

The valuable effects of the phenolic molecules are mainly due to their antioxidant activity by preventing oxidative stress and stimulate collagen synthesis, therefore, providing benefits to the skin.

Flaxseed oil, fibers and flax lignans have potential health benefits such as in reduction of cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, osteoporosis, autoimmune and neurological disorders. Flax protein helps in the prevention and treatment of heart disease and in supporting the immune system.

The flax seed had significantly decreased cortisol (blood), decreased epinephrine and norepinephrine concentration, decreased monoamine oxidase A and B activity, and decreased superoxide dismutase activity.

Abdominal pain, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), allergic reactions, antioxidant, benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), bipolar disorder, bladder inflammation, blood thinner, boils, bowel irritation, bronchial irritation, burns (poultice), catarrh (inflammation of mucous membrane), colon cancer, cough (suppression or loosening of mucus), cystitis, depression, diarrhea, diabetic nephropathy, diverticulitis, dry skin, dysentery, eczema, emollient, enlarged prostate, enteritis, eye cleansing (debris in the eye), gastritis, gonorrhea, headache, infections, inflammation, irritable bowel syndrome, liver protection, malaria, melanoma, menstrual disorders, ovarian disorders, pimples, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, skin infections, skin inflammation, sore throat, stomach upset, stroke, ulcerative colitis, upper respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, vaginitis, vision improvement.

 

Artikel

flax monograph (seed and oil)

 

TCM

Die 5-Elementeanalyse bildet die Energiedynamik von Leinsamen wie folgt ab:

 

Blau bedeutet : TCM-Quellen
Grün bedeutet: TCM-Quellen und Studien
Schwarz bedeutet : Studien
Rot bedeutet: Studien Hauptwirkung

 

Zum Verständnis der Abkürzungen des Schaubildes siehe

Struktur – und Wandlungsmodell der chinesischen Medizin

http://www.chinesischemedizin.com/CMS/index.php/struktur-und-wandlungsmodell.html

 

 

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Ein Gedanke zu “Leinsamen

  1. Thanks for some other great post. Where else may anyone get that
    type of info in such an ideal means of writing?
    I’ve a presentation next week, and I am at the look for such information.

    Gefällt mir

    Verfasst von shortlife.Net | 14. April 2018, 15:43

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